30. Brutal Lobotomy
A not so ancient medical treatment but deserves a mention in this list for its barbarity! Lobotomy was as gruesome as Trepanation yet it was a widely practiced cure for mental illness in recent history. Invented by a Portuguese neurologist, Antonio Egas Moniz, the procedure involved severing nerve pathways in a lobe or lobes of the brain from those in the other areas.
Despite the lack of evidence on its effectiveness, this invasive surgery was advocated and campaigned as a sure shot cure for mental disorders. It would at times be performed by inexperienced surgeons, without the use of anesthesia, which would add to the agony of the patients, often ending in seizures or at times even death.
Today, lobotomy is considered synonymous with barbarism and regarded as the most shameful chapter in modern medical history.