14. Birthing Bladder Stones
In the middle ages, bladder stones had become somewhat of an epidemic that had an extremely high mortality rate of over 50%. Lihotomists, medical practitioners who had expertise in helping people in removing these stones, would carry out delivery of these stones in a process resembling childbirth.
The patient would be laid on their backs with their legs far apart, a blade would then be inserted into the bladder. The Lihotomists would then insert their fingers or surgical instruments to assist the patient in birthing the stones.
It comes as no surprise that this horribly invasive and barbaric procedure often ended with the demise of the patient. In the 19th century, stone removal surgeries became more tolerable and as diets became healthier, the cases of bladder stones dropped significantly.